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600 - 1450 // Chinggis Khan 
    Chinggis Khan, as known as Temujin, became a fearless leader. He led the Mongols far and wide, conquering many civilizations, gaining more power each time. He gained victory for the Mongols, creating one of the greatest empires in history. Chinggis Khan led one of the strongest militaries and expanded his empire by surviving on tributes and trade, as well as organized his empire similar to those of the Bedouins.

    Before Chinggis Khan took power, the Mongols were difficult to organize, but when with Khan, they became well organized, disciplined, and one unity. The Mongol political organization was like the Bedouins. They were separated into kinship groups or clans, but were sometimes combined into confederations. There clan-based society was organized around bloodlines. Temujin became the leader of the Mongols and was accepted by the title Chinggis Khan, meaning “universal leader.” Later, Chinggis Khan’s sons and grandsons organized the empire in a unique way which led the disrupted trade routes to recover. They formed four khanates, which were each ruled by different relatives, along with the ruler of the empire, located in Central Asia. Once the Mongols defeated an area, they expected tributes, but they allowed the conquered to keep their customs.

    Chinggis Khan is one of the most talented military leaders, creating a great strength for the Mongols, their mobility. They had an all male mobilization where every male from ages fifteen to seventy had to serve, but had benefits. They were each awarded with captured goods. Khan organized his warriors by the Chinese model. They were arranged into armies of 10,000, grouped into 100 men brigades, 100 men companies, and 10 men platoons. All the generals were kinsmen or trusted friends who remained loyal to Khan at all times. They used many different, effective strategies, consisting of surprise tactics, fake retreats, and false leads. They soon become masters at psychological warfare. Khan taught his military to be tough, mobile, and accustomed to death. His military was well disciplined and if the fled, they were killed. Chinggis Khan followed the phrase, “Submit and live, resist and die.”

    Chinggis Khan expanded his empire, leading his troops into Central Asia, Tibet, Northern China, and Persia. As Chinggis Khan began his conquests, China was among one if his first targets. The Mongols attacked the Chinese states in 1211 where they steadily conquered the territory even after the death of Chinggis Khan in 1227. The Mongols captured mostly all of western and northern China and also threatened what was left of the Song Empire, but the Song continued to resist for several decades. One of the major economic machine in the Mongol Empire was their commercial and trade relationships with other neighboring economies, which continued the process of conquests. All the merchants and ambassadors travelled through their realms were protected if they had proper documentation and authorizations, which lead to great surges to overland trading. The Mongol Empire had minor influences on seaborne trade, which was lot larger than overland trade, value and volume wise. Chinggis Khan’s conquests extended the area for production and tax revenues. He also increased the population of the empire, which increased the army, making it more effective and it could still be maintained.

    Chinggis Khan created one of the largest empires in history and maintained it with one of the greatest militaries. After his death, his sons and grandsons took over. He created great tactics, systems, and leadership, thus leading the way for future generations. Due to Chinggis Khan’s amazing efforts, his sons were able to continue his conquests, expanding the empire even more and gaining more power. Chinggis Khan set the standards for most other leaders, therefore he became one of the most powerful and skillful leaders in world history.