Vocabulary by Shanice C.

Asian sea-trading network: Prior to intervention of Europeans, consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; China based on paper, porcelain, and silks.

Chongzhen: (choong juhn) Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen capture of the Forbidden City at Beijing.

Deshima: Island in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640’s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.

Dutch trading empire: The Dutch system extending into Asia with Fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of the limited number of products.

Hongwa: First Ming emperor in 1368; Originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry.

Mercantilism: Economic theory that stressed governments’ promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenues; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.

Ormuz: Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at southern end of Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network.

Zhenghe: Chinese Muslim admiral who commanded series of Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Red Sea trade expeditions under third Ming emperor, Yunglo, between 1405 and 1433.

Mindanao: Southern island of Philippines; a Muslim kingdom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.

Caravels: Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.

School of National learning: New ideology that laid emphasis on Japan’s unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Chinese imports such as Confucianism; typical of Japan in 18th century.

Macao: One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.

Factories: European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce

Malacca: Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula’ traditionally a center for trade among the southern Asian islands.

Tokugawa Shogunate: Founded 1603 when Tokugawa leyasu was made shogun by Japanese emperor; ended the civil wars and brought political unity to Japan.

Yuan Shikai: Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.

Neo-Confucian: Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.

Scholar-gentry: Chinese class created by the marital linkage of the local land-holding aristocracy with the office-holding shi; superseded as governors of China.

Goa: Portuguese factory of fortified trade town located on western India coast; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network.

Nobunaga: (1534-1582) Japanese daimyo; first to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikaga shoguns; unified much of Central Honshu under his command.

Luzon: Northern islands of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.

Canton: One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.

Robert Di Nobli: (1577-1656) Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites first; strategy later widely adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.

Batavia: Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java.

Edo: Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokoyo; center of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

Adam Schall: (1591-1666) Along with Matteo Ricci, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity.

Matteo Ricci: (1552-1610) Along with Adam Schall, Jesuit scholar in court of Ming emperors; skilled scientist; won few converts to Christianity.