Vocabulary on Mongols

Alexander Nevskii: 1220–1263, Russian hero, grand duke of Vladimir-Suzdal; earned his surname by his victory (1240) over the Swedes on the Neva River

Baibars: Commander of Mamluk forces at Ain Jalut; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians

Berke: A ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks I Egypt forestalling further Mongol conquests in the Middle East

Hulegu: Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257

Ilkhan khanate: One of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire

Khagan: Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes

Khanates: Four regional Mongol Kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan

Ming Dynasty: Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China

Mongols: Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last Abbasid caliph

Muhammad Shah II: Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm kingdom; attempted to resist Mongol conquest; conquered in 1220

White Lotus Society: Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule

Battle of Kulikova: Russian army victory over the forces of the Golden Horde; helped break Mongol hold over Russia

Kabilai Khan: Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of Mongol forces responsible for conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271

Yuan: (Dynasty)- lasted from 1279-1368 A.D., was the first of only two times that the entire area of China was ruled by foreigners, in this case, the Mongols.

Mamluks: Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance

Batu: Ruler of Golden Horde; one of Chinggis Khan’s grandsons; responsible for incasion of Russia beginning in 1236

Khwarazm Empire: a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia; lasted until Mongol invasion in 1220

Tumens: Basic fighting units of the Mongol forces; consisted of 10,000 cavalrymen; each unit was further divided into units of 1000, 100, and 10

Chinggis Khan: Born in 1170s in decade following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world

Samarkand: Samarkand is the second largest city of Uzbekistan and is of the same age as Rome

Kuriltai: Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected

Karakorum: Capital of the Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan

Ibn al-Athir: (1160-1233); Arab historian; best known for his work on the Kamil at Tawarikh

Ju Yuanzhang: Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan in 14th century; founded Ming Dynasty

King Bela: eldest son of King Andrew l log Hungary

Chabi: Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adapt restrictive social conversations of Chinese.

Marco Polo: famous for his travels through Asia; first European to travel into Mongolia and China; travel along the Silk Road to China

Berke: A ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mamluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East

Prester John: Name given to a mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom had supposedly been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; Chinggis Khan was originally believed to be this mythical ruler

Golden Horde: One of the four subdivisions of Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan’s death, originally ruled by his grandson Batu; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia

Timur-i Lang: Also known as Tamerlane; leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360s from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405

Ogedei: Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongols following his father’s death

Vocabulary on China

nuclear family- A family consisting of a husband, a wife, children, and a grandmother or orphaned cousin; a common type of family in the peasantry class of China

Ordos bulge- A fertile region on the Huanghe River. The Yangshao and Longshan cultures flourished here

Sunzi- Advisor to the Chinese Monarch of the 4th century b.c.e.; wrote The Art of War

Xian- Capital of the Zhou Dynasty

Forbidden city- The imperial district of China’s capital city; those who weren’t an advisor, household, or part of an imperial family were forbidden to enter

Shi- Most likely priests before, they are the corps of professional bureaucrats

Mandate of heaven- The Chinese rulers’ source of political legitimacy established by a divine law; used by the Zhou to explain the removal of Shang rule

Eunuchs- Castrated male servants who typically guarded the emperor’s concubines. There importance would soon rise during the Han dynasty due to their involvement in powerful marital relatives

Shang- First Chinese dynasty that was recorded; a capital in the Ordos bend
Wu- First King to be recognized during the Zhou era (1122 b.c.e.)

Feudalism- The social organization created by exchanging grants of land or fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European middle ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.(ablongman)
Shi huangdi- Qin dynasty founder ( 221 b.c.e.)

Qin dynasty- Marked the end of the Warring states, and resulted from the fall of the Zhou(221 b.c.e.- 207 b.c.e.)

Oracles- The priests/ shamans of Chinese society that would foretell the future through animal bones cracked by heat

Scholar-gentry- a Chinese social class created by marital relationships between
land-owning aristocracy and the officer shis; replaced the shi as governors

Mencius- Aka Meng ko; a Confucian follower stressing the importance of the approval of things by the common people

loess- fertile soil of the Ordos regions

patrilineal- In which inheritance and genealogies are traced through the male lineage

Confucius- A.k.a. Kung fuzi. Important Chinese philosopher born in 6th century B.C.E. As creator of the Analects his intellectual insight gave birth to a philosophy where restoration of order by superior elite class men of shi would be necessary

Liu Bang- Founder of the Han dynasty

Han dynasty- Dynasty succeeding the Qin in 202 b.c.e. This dynasty would rule for the next 400 years