Associated Vocabulary Terms by Shanice C.

Daoism: Philosophy associated with Laozi; stressed need for alignment with Dao or cosmic force.

Laozi: Also known as Lao; major Chinese philosopher; recommended retreat from society into nature; individual should seek to become attuned with Dao.

Confucius: Also known as Kung Fuzi; major Chinese philosopher; born in 6th century B.C.E.; author of Analects; philosophy based on need for restoration of order through advice of superior men to be found among the shi.

Great Wall: Chinese defensive fortification intended to keep out the nomadic invaders from the north; initiated during Qin dynasty and reign of Shi Huangdi.

Qin dynasty: Established in 221 B.C.E. at the end of Warring States period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; fell in 207 B.C.E.

Zhou: Originally a vassal family of Shang China; possibly Turkic in origin; overthrew Shang and established second historical Chinese dynasty.

Han dynasty: Chinese dynasty that succeeded in the Qin in 202 B.C.E.; ruled for next 400 years.
Imperial dynasty that ruled China from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy, dynasty that overthrew the Qin, established centralized government, civil service system, Silk Road

Shi Huangdi: Founder of the brief Qin dynasty in 221 B.C.E.
The founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire (r. 221-210 B.C.E.) He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states and standardization. (163), unified China, ruled Qin dynasty, built many roads, started Great Wall of China, divided kingdoms into districts, the first emperor of China

Silk Road: The most famous of the trading routes established by pastoral nomads connecting the Chinese, Indian, Persian, and Mediterranean civilizations; transmitted goods and ideas among civilization. Is an interconnected series of ancient trade routes through various regions of the Asian continent, mainly connecting Chang'an (today's Xi'an) in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. It extends over 8,000 km (5,000 miles) on land and sea. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Indian subcontinent, and Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world. The first person who used the term "seidenstrassen" or Silk Road was the German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen in 1877.

“mean people”: Were beneath the peasantry; performed rough transport and other unskilled jobs and suffered from the lowest possible status.

Dynasty: a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family, who, through various means and forms maintain power, influence or authority over the course of generations

Analects: A record of the world and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples

Five Classics: Written during the early part of the Zhou dynasty and then edited during the time of Confucius; provided an important tradition; used as a basis for civil service examinations, the works included—some historical treaties, speeches, and other political materials (a discussion of etiquette and ceremonies) and in the Classic of Songs (over 300 poems dealing with love, joy, politics, and family life. Texts used to train scholars and civil servants in ancient China.

Legalism: Maintained that peace and order were achievable only through a centralized, tightly governed state; didn’t trust human nature and advocated the need for tough laws; believed that people were made to obey through harsh punishment, strong central government, and unquestioned authority; focused only on things that were practical or that sustained the society; believed that two of the most worthy professions were farming and the military.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and control; the Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regine. 

Era of Warring States: (402-201 B.C.E.) regional rulers made their own armies and fought for control; during this time Zhou Dynasty died; (441-221 B.C.E.) Feudal lords fight amongst each other for territory and power. Ethics of war are broken and new rulers are less-gentlemen like.

Mandarins: Who: officials in Confucius style government. What: passed very difficult exams in order to hold leadership positions. They formed their own social class, called the Gentry. Many of them attended a university that had been built. Where: China, started in the state of Lu. When: 6th century BC on for 2000 years. Why: Led the Confucian government and were the only people, often, who could read and write.

Partriarchalism: a system of social organization built around authority and power of fathers.